Wine first appeared about 4500 BC, and was quite common in ancient Rome and Greece. In fact, both cultures even had gods that represent wine. While Dionysus was the Greek god representing wine, and Bacchus the Roman equivalent, wine continued to play an important role in religion throughout history. In fact, the drink is still used in modern day Christian services to represent the Eucharist, and in the Jewish Kiddush ceremonies as well.
Wine is made from fermented fruit juices which, to spite my introductory statements, is usually made from grapes because of their natural chemical balance, which allows them to ferment without the addition of sugars, enzymes, acids, or other nutrients. Grape wine is created by fermenting the crushed grapes using various types of yeast. The yeast consumes the sugars contained in the grapes and converts them into alcohol. The different varieties of grapes, as well as different strains of yeasts, produce different types of wine.
Wine that is made from fruits other than grapes, is usually called the fruit they are made with (such as elderberry wine), generically called fruit wine, or they are called after the specific fruit from which they are made (such as elderberry wine). Actually, wine can also be made from flowers and vegetables as well. All home-made wine is generally referred to as "country wine". Country, as in "not the city", because presumably the ingredients originally came from the Earth/the countryside. Don't dismiss the country wine that you come across simply because it is home made, it can be just as good, or even better as any store bought bottle. And they are for sure less expensive than their store bought counterparts.
Actually, because of the additives needed, non-grape wines may be technically more difficult to perfect, however they do not command the popularity, distinction, or the price that most grape wines do. This is probably also true of other wines, made from starch based materials like barley wine or rice wine (sake). In fact, these wines actually resemble beer more than they do wine. In these cases, the term "wine" refers to the higher alcohol content they posses, rather than the actual production process. Interestingly enough, the word "wine", as well as its equivalent in other languages, is protected and defined by law in many jurisdictions.